Celebrating Sustainability Leaders on World Water Day

Author: Christa Brown - Marketing Manager

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At the end of 2017, we asked our customers to submit projects that they implemented to save water & energy in their facilities.  We were so impressed with the responses we received!  Today, on World Water Day, we celebrate our clients for being sustainability leaders.  When we save water, we save energy too.

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Water is an excellent heat transfer medium.  Therefore, industrial uses of water to heat and cool things accounts for a large portion of our fresh water used each day, making it critical that facilities strive to reduce resource waste in their operations.  The Klenzoid Sustainability Leadership Award recognizes organizations that have shown initiative to realize cost savings for their facility, and water & energy savings for our planet.

Sustainability Leadership Award winner

Pepsi Bottling Group

USG
Annual Water Savings

The team at Pepsico worked with Klenzoid to identify and implement four system improvement projects in 2017 resulting in savings of almost 1.5 Million Gallons of water and $70,000 per year.

  • Steam System Service to Increase Condensate Return Ratio
  • Split Stream Softening of Evaporative Cooling Systems Make-up Water
  • Chloride-Cycle Dealkalizer Pre-treatment of Feedwater
  • Blowdown Optimization
In addition to reducing the water & energy consumption at this facility, and lowering operating costs, these projects also played a key role in protecting mission critical equipment and improving reliability.

To read more about how the team at Pepsico achieved these savings, download the full case study.

Sustainability Leadership Runner Ups

In no particular order, we would also like to recognize the following clients for their impressive initiatives.

Post Foods

%
Annual Cost Reduction
The team at Post Foods invested in upgraded water management equipment to better monitor and control their water usage.  This equipment included water meters and a web-enabled Datalogic conductivity controller.  With this equipment, they were better able to control the cycles of concentration of their evaporative cooling system and apply for a Sewer Water Rebate from their municipality.

Many municipalities in Canada offer a Sewer Water Rebate program.  When a facility purchases water from the municipality, they pay for the supply and the return of the water.  However, if a facility can prove that they are sending back less water than they purchased because a portion of it is being evaporated for cooling purposes or used for humidification or other direct steam uses, they may be eligible for a rebate.  For Post Foods, this rebate covered over half of their annual water treatment bill!

In addition to the rebate, the upgrades allowed the facility to stop batch mixing their treatment products and transition to Klenzoid’s Demand DeliveryTM service. Our Demand DeliveryTM program is an environmentally conscious inventory management service. Reusable stainless steel transfer vessels eliminates both chemical healage waste, and the use & recycling of plastic shipping containers.

Demand Delivery

Atlantic Biodiesel

USG
Annual Water Savings
By blending soft water from an existing softener system into the make-up to their evaporative cooling system, the team at Atlantic Biodiesel implemented a carefully designed split stream softening program to increase their cycles of concentration. The higher the cycles of concentration, the less water that must be sent to drain in bleed for each gallon of make-up.
Cycles of Concentration Defn
This project resulted in savings of approximately 640,000 Gallons per year.  In addition to the water savings, this project played a key role in keeping the heat exchange surfaces in their chiller free of deposits, resulting in a 2 degree drop in approach temperature, representing approximately 3% drop in electricity consumption to operate the chiller.

Health Sciences North

USG
Annual Water Savings

The team at the Ramsey Lake Campus installed a dedicated softener system to implement a carefully designed split steam softening program to increase the cycles of concentration of their evaporative cooling system. The higher the cycles of concentration, the less water that must be sent to drain in bleed for each gallon of make-up. This project resulted in savings just under 1.1 Million Gallons per year.

Water Softener Illustration

Congratulations

On behalf of the entire Klenzoid team, we want to thank our clients for their continued partnership in pursuing the least cost operating solution for their water systems.  Together we are generating water & energy savings for our planet.

If you are interested in being recognized as a sustainability leader, talk to your Klenzoid Representative about how you can submit an application to be considered for next year’s awards!

Christa Brown is a Professional Engineer and has a Chemical Engineering degree from Dalhousie University. She is a Marketing Manager with over 10 years of experience designing and implementing solutions for water systems.  Christa is an avid listener of CBC radio and her favorite shows are ‘Under the Influence’, ‘This is That’, and ‘Quirks & Quarks’.

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Dealkalizer Technologies

Some important design considerations for the chloride cycle dealkalizer are:

  • Feed water must be softened
    • Calcium chloride can precipitate and foul the beads
  • Minimal impact on total dissolved solids
  • Potential small decrease in blowdown requirements
  • Relatively low capital cost, reasonably effective, simple to operate

 

Some important design considerations for the WAC dealkalizer are: 

  • Additional softening required. WAC can remove as much hardness as there is available alkalinity – any residual hardness needs to be removed before the boiler.
  • Efficiency reduction with increasing flow rate, decreasing kinetics.
  • Handling of acid
    • Sulfuric acid – heat of hydration is a concern (can’t have plastic tanks, plastic piping), higher concentrations are available (up to 93%), calcium sulfate precipitation can be a concern for water sources high in sulfate levels)
    • Hydrochloric acid – fumes, plastic can be used, calcium chloride precipitation is not a concern, lower concentrations available (up to 32%)
  • Higher capital cost, very effective, easy to operate, larger footprint

Ion Exchange Explained



A quick review of ion exchange is required to understand dealkalization and we’ll use the water softening process as an example, as most boiler operators are very familiar with this.  Water softeners use strong acid cation (SAC) resin for ion exchange.  SAC resin has an affinity for divalent ions (Calcium, Magnesium) meaning that the resin wants to grab a hold of these divalent ions as they’re passing through the bed and exchange them with the sodium ions. Once resin is saturated and there are no more available free resin beads for ion exchange, a brute force wash of the SAC bead with sodium chloride (salt) brine is required.

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How to Minimize Amine Requirements



Amines should be dosed at the minimum rate required to neutralize carbonic acid, and to maintain pH levels of 8.0 to 9.0 in condensate.

In situations where incoming alkalinity levels are elevated, the concentration of amine required to neutralize the resulting elevated CO2 levels may exceed OTLs or even PELs. A number of alternatives are available to decrease alkalinity levels from incoming water:
  • Reverse osmosis (RO) Weak-acid dealkalization (WAC)
  • Chloride-cycle dealkalization
  • Demineralization (Demin)
RO, WAC and Demin units remove alkalinity from incoming water sources, and are often implemented to reduce energy and/or water consumption in steam plants because they decrease the overall mineral concentration of dissolved solids from incoming water. However, the chloride-cycle dealkalizer is a standout choice if the goal is to simply reduce incoming alkalinity on a budget. It operates much like a softener unit, and can decrease alkalinity levels by up to 95%.


Chloride-Cycle Dealkalizer Operation

Chloride cycle dealkalizers use strong base anion (SBA) ion exchange resin to swap carbonate and bicarbonate ions for chloride ions.  The footprint is similar a sodium softener, and they also use salt as the primary regenerant.  A small amount of sodium hydroxide if also often used to increase the effective capacity per regeneration.



The reduction of alkalinity in the feedwater, reduces the formation of carbonic acid in condensate, thus reducing the required amount of amines to neutralize the carbonic acid to maintain pH levels of 8.0 to 9.0 in condensate.

Implementation of a chloride-cycle dealkalizer can reduce your amine requirement by up to 90%.

PELs & OTLs



There are 2 important concentration guidelines:
  • Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs)
  • Odor Threshold Limits (OTL)
The following table describes the limits set by Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH):


Exceeding PELs poses a health risk to occupants. These PELs should never be exceeded for any period of time. See this link for a related article from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001848.htm

It is best practice to also follow OTLs to minimize the likelihood of complaints from occupants, especially from those with sensitivities.

A More Detailed Look at the Components of Steam



Oxygen

Liquid water always contains some concentration of oxygen (O2). The solubility of oxygen is primarily determined by the temperature of the water. Higher temperatures reduce the solubility of oxygen in water (see graph).
Because oxygen is extremely corrosive in high temperature water, steam boiler treatment programs use chemical and/or mechanical means of eliminating dissolved oxygen in water. An effectively treated steam boiler, and the steam it produces, will have near-zero dissolved oxygen concentrations.

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released by the heating of carbonate (CO32-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) in boiler water. These ions are naturally present in water from lakes, rivers and underground wells, and their concentration determines the alkalinity of the water source. The amount of carbonate alkalinity entering the boiler is proportional to the volume of carbon dioxide gas that will be in the generated steam. Carbon dioxide eventually forms carbonic acid in condensate. Higher alkalinity values result in greater carbonic acid concentrations.


The Release of Carbon Dioxide



The above reactions describe the release of carbon dioxide gas from sodium bicarbonate (1) and sodium carbonate (2).

The heat energy in boiler water is sufficient for the first reaction to proceed to 100% completion.  The completion of the second reaction is dependent on increasing pressure and temperature.

Higher carbonate and bicarbonate levels in boiler feedwater will lead to proportionally higher concentrations of CO2 in steam.

Amines

The amine compounds used in boiler water treatment are selected based on their boiling point, and their distribution ratio. The distribution ratio is a measure of how far the amine will travel before condensing. An optimal blend of amines will protect the entire condensate piping network (near and far). Amines are considered volatile organic compounds, and their concentration must be monitored to prevent exposure to levels beyond permissible limits.


Lesson about Amines to Impress Your Water Treatment Professional



Amines are a functional group in organic chemistry, and are derivatives of ammonia. They are separated into three main groups, primary, secondary and tertiary amines. These groups are defined by the number of hydrogen atoms replaced by organic substituents.

The most commonly used amines for neutralizing carbonic acid in condensate are:
  • cyclohexylamine (CHA)
  • diethylaminoethanol (DEAE)
  • morpholine
These amines are selected for their availability, basicity (ability to neutralize acids), boiling points, and most importantly, distribution ratios.

Distribution ratios (DR) are a measure of the how far amines will travel with steam before condensing. A proper blend of amines will include low DRs to protect condensate piping closest to the boiler, and high DRs to protect piping in longer and more complex condensate networks. Below is a table with the properties of the amines discussed above.

Other Types of Humidification Systems

Pan Humidifiers:

Pan humidifiers are essentially small shallow basins filled with water. The basins are heated with electric elements or steam, with the intent of evaporating water.

Pan humidifiers are found in smaller HVAC systems, and are susceptible to biological and corrosion fouling.

Water Spray Humidifiers:

This design uses an array of nozzles to atomize liquid water directly into the air stream. The phase change from liquid to vapour causes a noticeable drop in air temperature.

This type of system is most susceptible to biological and corrosion fouling. Facilities with year-long continuous cooling loads requiring high RH are best suited for this technology.

Steam to Steam or Clean Steam Generators:

These systems are small steam boilers, specifically designed to produce steam from high purity water sources, such as demineralization, or reverse osmosis. The energy input comes from steam raised elsewhere in the facility by a traditional steam boiler.

This design is typically more costly, and adds complexity, but produces steam with no boiler water treatment compounds.


Clean steam generators can only produce steam at low pressures.  The packaged heat exchangers rely on the higher energy content of higher pressure steam.

Water purity is critical for clean steam generators.
  • Low hardness levels (>3ppm of calcium, magnesium, or iron) will lead to fouling of heat exchange surfaces.
  • Water with even moderate alkalinity levels will release CO2 gas which will corrode any condensate piping components.
  • Moderate levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) will lead to priming or carry over, which may damage the steam control valves and/or contaminate the steam.
Therefore, Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems are ideal for humidifier makeup.  These units are designed to remove nearly all of the minerals from incoming water sources, and produce water with TDS concentrations of 0-5 ppm.

Steam to steam generators do cycle up.  Despite high purity makeup, there are always some dissolved solids.  If the generators do not purge some volume of water regularly, the bulk water will concentrate beyond acceptable levels, causing water discolouration and may lead to fouling and/or corrosion to system components depending on materials of construction.

Effects of Humidification on Occupant Comfort and Building Materials

RH levels have a direct impact on the health of patrons in a facility.

When humidity is too low occupants will get dry skin, irritated sinus, throats and eyes.

When humidity is too high mold/mildew problems can occur in the building, thus increasing the risk of illness to occupants. These health impacts are of increased concern with health care facilities who treat immunocompromised patients.

RH levels also have an impact on building materials.

The amount of moisture the material can hold will determine the extent to which it shrinks and swells with fluctuations in humidity. The effect is especially pronounced in wood and drywall, where gaps and cracks will form over time.

Windows are also prone to condensation in cold climates because they generally have little insulation value. The likelihood of condensation on windows increases as the indoor relative humidity rises, and the outdoor temperature decreases.

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